The Court of Claims is given original jurisdiction to hear and determine all civil actions filed against the State of Ohio and its agencies. The court also hears appeals from decisions made by the Attorney General on claims allowed under the Victims of Crime Act.
The Court of Claims decides civil claims that typically involve contract disputes, property damage, personal injury, immunity of state officers and employees, discrimination, and wrongful imprisonment. The Chief Justice assigns judges to hear such cases. In almost every instance, a single judge will hear a case, but the Chief Justice may assign a panel of three judges to a civil action that presents novel or complex issues of law and fact.
Civil complaints filed for $10,000 or less are decided on the contents of the case file or "administratively" by the clerk of the court or a deputy clerk. Appeals from those decisions ("administrative determinations") may be taken to a judge of the court upon motion for court review. The court’s judgment cannot be the subject of further appeal.
Crime victims' appeals are heard and determined by a panel of three commissioners who are appointed by the Supreme Court for a six-year term. A further and final appeal from the panel’s decisions may be taken to a judge of the court. As in the case of administrative determinations, the judge's decision is final.